In 1879 Eadweard Muybridge invented the first movie projector. Earlier iterations of a spinning sequence of images had come before, but no one had thought to project them through glass and onto a wall. He called his invention the Zoopraxiscope. By combining photography, the magic lantern and the Phenakistoscope, Muybridge was able to project a moving image for an audience of people. Before this eureka moment, Muybridge was creating his own Phenakistoscopes. The Phenakistoscopes seen on this page would produce an illusion of motion when the user spun the disc, and looked through the moving slits at the disc’s reflection in a mirror. These lithographic prints were modeled from Muybridge’s more well known photographic motion studies. These discs represent another phase in Muybridge’s lifelong quest to understand motion and time.
Tuberculosis infection has been found in human remains as far back as the Neolithic Era. During the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, TB was the leading cause of death in the United States. Dr. Edward Livingston Trudeau promoted and established isolation techniques to fight TB in the 1880s. His efforts established an era of prevention and public education. Since then, many visual campaigns have promoted illustrative posters to fight the diseases spread. All of the poster’s in this series were downloaded from the History of Medicine (IHM)collections of the History of Medicine Division (HMD) of the U.S National Library of Medicine (NLM). The posters provide an interesting international case-study of the various approaches designers have taken to convey public health information.
Included in Roosevelt’s Works Progress Administration was funding for the Federal Art Project. At the close of the Federal Art Project in 1943, over 200,000 works had been made from artists including Mark Rothko, Grant Wood and Phillip Guston; now known around the world. Along with plays, murals and traditional paintings, many posters were made by artists for organisations also sponsored by the WPA. The incredible diversity of style and subject remain influential for graphic designers and artists today.